Effect of Thermal Treatment and Nickel-Salt Modification on the Catalytic Performance of the Illite-Kaolinite Clay from Bukittinggi of West Sumatra in Palm Oil Transesterification

Authors: Syukri, Febiola Fifi, Rahmayeni, Efdi Mai, Putri Yulia Eka, Septiani Upita Published: 28.04.2022
Published in issue: #2(101)/2022  
DOI: 10.18698/1812-3368-2022-2-125-136

Category: Chemistry | Chapter: Organic Chemistry  
Keywords: clay, illite, kaolinite, heterogenous catalyst, transesterification


The effect of thermal and chemical modification on the catalytic performance of illite-kaolinite clay (obtained from Bukittinggi, West Sumatra) in the transesterification of palm oil was investigated. Characterization with XRD, XRF and FTIR indicated a slight change in the composition of the crystal phase and the Si/Al molar ratio after such clay was calcined at 450 °C. XRF measurements also confirm that after treatment with two nickel salts, the natural clay absorbs more nickel sulfate than nitrate, while temperature played an important role in increasing the performance of the clay in loading nickel about 2 times bigger at a higher temperature. All clay-based materials prepared in this study were tested for their catalytic activity and selectivity in the transesterification of palm oil to produce Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) using the previously reported procedure. Chemical modification of clay samples with nickel sulfate and nickel nitrate was found to increase the catalytic performance of the clay in producing FAME from 38 to about 60 % while thermally treated at 450 °C yielded slightly higher to about 67 %. In terms of selectivity, all clay-based catalysts in this study gave almost the same amount of saturated and unsaturated FAME

Syukri and all members of the research team would like to thank LPPM of Andalas University who have financially supported this research by so called PTU-KRP2GB-UNAND Research Grant with contract number T/23/UN.16.17/PP.JS-PTU-KRP2GB-Unand/LPPM/2021

Please cite this article as:

Syukri, Febiola Fifi, Rahmayeni, et al. Effect of thermal treatment and nickel-salt modification on the catalytic performance of the illite-kaolinite clay from Bukittinggi of West Sumatra in palm oil transesterification. Herald of the Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Series Natural Sciences, 2022, no. 2 (101), pp. 125--136. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18698/1812-3368-2022-2-125-136


[1] Zhang Q., Zhang Y., Deng T., et al. Sustainable production of biodiesel over heterogeneous acid catalysts. In: Recent Advances in Development of Platform Chemicals. Elsevier, 2019, pp. 407--432.

[2] Cong W.-J., Wang Y.-T., Li H., et al. Direct production of biodiesel from waste oils with a strong solid base from alkalized industrial clay ash. Appl. Energy, 2020, vol. 264, art. 114735. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.114735

[3] Zaki M., Husin H., Alam P.N., et al. Transesterifikasi minyak biji buta-buta menjadi biodiesel pada katalis heterogen kalsium oksida (CaO). J. Rekayasa Kim. Lingkung., 2019, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 36--43. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.23955/rkl.v14i1.13495

[4] Khan I.W., Naeema A., Farooq M., et al. Catalytic conversion of spent frying oil into biodiesel over raw and 12-tungsto-phosphoric acid modified clay. Renew. Energy, 2020, vol. 155, pp. 181--188. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2020.03.123

[5] Abukhadra M.R., Sayed M.A. K+ trapped kaolinite (Kaol/K+) as low cost and eco-friendly basic heterogeneous catalyst in the transesterification of commercial waste cooking oil into biodiesel. Energy Convers. Manag., 2018, vol. 177, pp. 468--476. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2018.09.083

[6] Alves H.J., da Rocha A.M., Monteiro M.R., et al. Treatment of clay with KF: new solid catalyst for biodiesel production. Appl. Clay Sci., 2014, vol. 91-92, pp. 98--104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2014.02.004

[7] Ningsih L., Deska A., Arief S., et al. Enrichment of Sawahlunto clay with cation Ca2+ and Cu2+ and preliminary test of its catalytic activity in CPO transesterification reaction. Aceh Int. J. Sci. Technol., 2020, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 187--196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.13170/aijst.9.3.17944

[8] Syukri S., Ferdian F., Rilda Y., et al. Synthesis of graphene oxide enriched natural kaolinite clay and its application for biodiesel production. Int. J. Renew. Energy Dev., 2021, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 307--315. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.2021.32915

[9] Wei G., Liu Z., Zhang L., et al. Catalytic upgrading of Jatropha oil biodiesel by partial hydrogenation using Raney-Ni as catalyst under microwave heating. Energy Convers. Manag., 2018, vol. 163, pp. 208--218. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2018.02.060

[10] Kamaronzaman M.F.F., Kahar H., Hassan N., et al. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using nickel doped onto eggshell catalyst. Mater. Today Proc., 2020, vol. 31-1, pp. 342--346. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2020.06.159

[11] Gonggo S.T., Edyanti F. Physicochemical characterization of clay minerals as a raw material of ceramic industry in Desa Lembah Bomban Kec. Bolano Lambunu Kab. Parigi Moutong. J. Akad. Kim., 2013, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 105--113.

[12] Rahmaniah R., Reskywijaya R., Wahyuni A.S., et al. Analisis mineral Tanah Rawan Longsor Menggunakan X-Ray diffraction di Desa Sawaru Kabupaten Maros. Jambura Geosci. Rev., 2020, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 41--49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.34312/jgeosrev.v2i1.2639

[13] Noer Aini L., Mulyono M., Hanudin E. Mineral Mudah Lapuk material piroklastik Merapi dan potensi Keharaannya Bagi Tanaman. Planta Trop. J. Agro Sci., 2016, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 84--94. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18196/pt.2016.060.84-94

[14] Karelius K. Extraction and characterization natural clay of central Kalimantan as one of alternatives additives of geopolimer concrete. J. Pendidik. Teknol. dan Kejuru. Balanga, 2017, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1--10.

[15] Ritonga P.S. Kajian spektra IR dan AAS lempung terpilar-Fe. Phot. J. Sain dan Kesehat., 2012, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 37--44. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.37859/jp.v3i1.147

[16] Zviagina B.B., Drits V.A., Dorzhieva O.V. Distinguishing features and identification criteria for K-dioctahedral 1M micas (Illite-aluminoceladonite and illite-glauconite-celadonite series) from middle-infrared spectroscopy data. Minerals, 2020, vol. 10, iss. 2, art. 153. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/min10020153

[17] Sakthivel A., Syukri S., Hijazi A.K., et al. Heterogenization of [Cu(NCCH3)4][BF4]2 on mesoporous AlMCM-41/AlMCM-48 and its application as cyclopropanation catalyst. Catal. Letters, 2006, vol. 111, no. 1-2, pp. 43--49.